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Who Is not Being Screened?

In spite of our universal health care system, women of lower socioeconomic status are less likely to have regular Pap tests.[4] In fact, low socioeconomic status is a recognized risk factor for cervical cancer.[7] In addition, Canadian women who were born outside Canada, are single, do not speak English, have a lower level of education and do not have a regular physician are less likely to have ever had a Pap test.[1]


1. Maxwell, CJ, Bancej, CM, Snider, J, Vik, SA. Factors important in promoting cervical cancer screening in Canadian women. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2001;92:127-133.

4. Gupta, S, Roos, LL, Walld, R, Traverse, D, Dahl, M. Delivering equitable care: Comparing preventive services in Manitoba. American Journal of Public Health 2003;93:2086-92.

7. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Guidelines for women’s health care, 2nd Edition. 2002.

All references for this section