Site Home   Gender and Dementia       Introduction to Gender and Health   The Gender Lens Tool

Vascular Risk Factors

  • prevalence of hypertension(HTN) is greater in men than in women until age of 60 years and then it is higher in women; women also have a higher rate of silent ischemia and cerebral white matter changes associated with HTN and diabetes making them more vulnerable to development of dementia [5]

  • low BP may be associated with cognitive impairment implying that a certain level of BP is needed to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion to preserve cognitive ability [9]

  • the Kunghsholmen project which had a proportion of  81.7% women in their sample size showed that diastolic BP <70 mmHg in those greater than 75 years was associated with increased incidence of AD and dementia [9]

  • diabetes has been associated with lower levels of cognitive function and greater cognitive decline in those over 65 and this is a concern for women as diabetes is increasing in frequency to a greater extent in women than in men [6]


5. Kearney PM, Whelton M, Reynolds N et al. Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data. Lancet 2005; 365(9455):217-23.

6. Sowers, JR. Diabetes in elderly and in women: cardiovascular risks. Cardiol Clin 2004; 22:541-51.

9. Qui C, von Strauss E, Fastbom J, Winbald B, Fratiglioni L. Low blood pressure and risk of dementia in the Kungsholmen project: a 6-year follow up study. Arch Neurol 2003; 60(2):223-8.

All references for this section