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References for this Section

1. emedecine Consumer Health - http://www.emedicinehealth.com

2. American Heart association - http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=1200000

3. Grossman S, Brown David FM. Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema - http://www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic108.htm

4. Lloyd-Jones DM. Lifetime risk for developing congestive heart failure: The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation. 2002 106;24:3068-3072.

5. Popovic JR. Kovac LJ. National hospital discharge survey: annual summary. Vital Health Stat 13. 1998 2000;148:1-194

6. Philbin EF, DiSalvo TG. Influence of race and gender on care process,resource use, and outcomes in congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1998;82:76-81

7. Senni M, Tribouilloy CM, Rodeheffer RJ, et al. Congestive heart failure in the community: a study of all incident cases in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 1991. Circulation. 1998;98:2282-2289.

8. Trends in the health of older Americans: United States, 1994: Analytic and epidemiologic studies No. #. Vital Health Stat 3. 1995;30:1-328.

9. Heiat A, Gross CP, Krumholz HM. Representation of the Elderly, Women, and Minorities in Heart Failure CLinical Trials. Arch Intern Med 2002;162.

10. Gurwitz JH, Col NF, Avorn J. The exclusion of the elderly and women from clincial trials in acute myocardial infarction. JAMA. 1992;268:1417-1422.

11. Hutchins LF, Unger JM, Crowley JJ, Coltman CA, Albain KS. Underrepresentation of patients 65 years of age or older in cancer-treatment trials. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:2061-2067

12. Trimble EL, Carter CL, Cain D, Freidlin B, Ungerleider RS, Freidman MA. Representation of older patients in cancer treatment trials. Cancer. 1994;74:2208-2214.

13. Schonfelder G. The biological impact of estrogens on gender differences in congestive heart failure. Cardiovascular Research 2005'67:573-574.

14. Oyoo GO, Ogola EN. Clinical and socio demographic aspects of congestive heart failure patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1999;76:23-27.

15. Agarwal AK, Venugopalan P, de Bono D. Prevalence and aetiology of heart failure in an Arab population. Eur J Heart Failure. 2001;3:301-305

16. Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S, et al. Gloval burden of cardiovascular diseases. Part I: general considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization. Circulation. 2001;104:2746-53.

17. Schocken DD, Arrieta MI, Leaverton PE, Ross EA. Prevalence and mortality rate of congestive heart failure in the United States. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;20:301-306.

18. Piano M. The pathophysiology of chronic heart failure. In: Steward S, Moser DK, Thomson, eds. Caring for the heart failure patient. London: Martin Dunitz Publishers; 2002.

19. American Heart Association. Heart and Stroke Statistical Update. Dallas, Tex: American Heart Association; 2002.

20. Riedinger M, Dracup K, Brecht ML. Quality of life in women with heart failure, normative groups, and patients with other chronic conditions. Am J Crit Care. 2002;11(3):211-219.

21. Jessup, M. and Pina, I. L. Is it important to examine gender differences in the epidemiology and outcome of severe heart failure? The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2004;127:5 1247-52