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Gender Specific Information

  • Women are not referred to hospital as often as men are [20][31]

  • Men are more likely to undergo invasive procedures than women [32][20]

    (This was only found to be the case for white men and women)

  • No gender differences were found between black men and women

  • 80% of heart transplant recipients are men [33]

    • Women refuse transplant as a treatment option more often than men

    • Men have a lower risk of donor heart rejection than women, and also a higher one year survival rate [33]

    • Compared to men, women experience a higher level of symptom frequency and distress related to immunosuppressive therapy [34]


20. Philbin EF, DiSalvo TG.Influence of race and gender on care process, resource use and outcomes in congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:76 –81.

31. Clarke KW, Gray D, Hampton JR.Evidence of inadequate investigation and treatment of patients with heart failure.Br Heart J 1994;71:584 –7.

32. Burns RB, McCarthy EP, Moskowitz MA, Ash A, Kane RL, Finch M.Outcomes for older men and women with congestive heart failure.J Am Geriatr Soc 1997;45:276 –80.

33. Kaye MP.The registry of the international society for heart and lung transplantation: 10th official report.J Heart Lung Transplant 1994;13:561 –70.

34. Moons P, De Geest S, Abraham I, Cleemput JV, Vanhaecke J. Symtom experience associated with maintenance immunosuppression after heart transplantation: Patients’ appraisal of side effects.Heart Lung 1998;27:315 –25.

All references for this section