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As we learned earlier, men may have a decidedly bleaker outlook on life, post HF diagnoses, than women do. Men often adopt a defeatist attitude, believing that nothing can be done to improve their health and that they might as well sit around and wait for the end to come [14].

Women, generally being far more positive, often believe that a HF diagnosis may mean a second chance at life, and are hopeful for the future [15][4][5].





If women are more positive than men, have a better attitude, and even ascribe positive feelings to their illness, why do they seem to suffer from a lower overall quality of life?


4. Friedman MM.Str essors and perceived stress in older women with heart disease.Car diovasc Nurs 1993;29:25 –9.

5. Evangelista LS, Kagawa-Singer M, Dracup K.Gender differences in health perceptions and meaning in persons living with heart failure.Heart Lung 2001;30:167 –76.

14. Martensson J, Karlsson J-E, Fridlund B.Male patients with congestive heart failure and their conceptions of the life situation.J Adv Nurs 1997;2:579 –86.

15. Martensson J, Karlsson J-E, Fridlund B.Female patients with congestive heart failure: how they conceive their life situation. J Adv Nurs 1998;28:1216 –24.

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