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Gender Specific Risk Factors (I)

  • Women with coronary artery disease are 2.7 times more likely to develop HF than men [2]

  • Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of HF for men and for elderly women [7]

  • Increased body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be slightly more significant in woman than men in the development of HF [3].

  • Men are more likely to have an ischemic etiology

  • For non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, women tend to have a higher left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) [7]

  • Myocardial infarction increases the risk of developing heart failure for women more than it does for men [9,10]

  • Hypertension is a more significant risk factor in women [11

    • Treatment of hypertension can reduce the risk of heart failure by up to 50%. Therefore, the advancements made in hypertension treatment over the last 50 years have had more of an impact on heart failure prevalence in women than in men [11]



2. Hoffman R, Psaty BM, Kronmal RA. Modifiable risk factors for incidence of heart failure in the Coronary Artery Surgery Study. Arch Intern Med. 1994;154:417-424.

3. Chen YT, Vaccarino V, Williams CS, Butler J, Berkman LF, Krumholza HM. Risk factors for heart failure in the elderly: a prospective community based study. Am J Med. 1999; 106:605-612.

7. Adams KF, Dunlap SH, Sueta CA, Clarke SW, Patterson JH, Blauwet M, Jensen LR, Tomasko L. Relation between gender, etiology and survival in patients with symptomatic heart failure. J Am Cardiol 1996;28:1781-8.

11. Jessup, M. and Pina, I. L. Is it important to examine gender differences in the epidemiology and outcome of severe heart failure? The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2004;127:5 1247-52

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