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Etiology Internationally





 China and Hong Kong

 Hypertension [6]

 Sub-Saharan Africa

 Rheumatic heart disease and Hypertension

 South America

 Coronary artery disease and Chaga’s disease

 Western Countries

 Coronary heart disease



While basic HF medications are essentially available world-wide; other treatments, such as implanted ventricular assist devices, or heart transplants are only an option for the rich minority.



6. Oyoo GO, Ogola EN. Clinical and socio demographic aspects of congestive heart failure patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J. 1999;76:23-7.

All references for this section