Diagnosis is based on the presence of clinical signs and symptoms for Heart Failure (HF), supported by diagnostic investigation. Accurate diagnosis of the underlying causes of heart failure is important because proper management of the disease requires that these causes be addressed directly.
After going through this section, you will be able to:
describe the basic techniques and tools used in heart failure diagnosis
describe the common clinical signs of heart failure
explain some of the differences in clinical HF signs between men and women
provide examples of gender bias in certain diagnostic testing procedures
explain the differences in the way men and women communicate their symptoms